Chapter 1 - Basics

# Assignment #

Zig provides bit-sized integers in the format `iN` (signed), and `uN` (unsigned). Here, `N` can be anywhere in the range 0-65535 (inclusive). Examples: `u8`, `u1`, `i32`, `u64`, `i40`.

Variables and constants can be assigned using the syntax `var/const identifier: type = value`. Values which are `const` cannot be changed, and are preferable over `var` where possible. Variables and constants are written as snake_case.

``````var some_variable: i32 = 5;
const some_constant: u64 = 5000;
``````

The type may be left out in cases where you want the type to be inferred by the value. Here we will use the `@as` built-in function which allows us to perform an explicit coercion to a type.

``````var some_variable = @as(i32, 5);
const some_constant = @as(u64, 5000);
``````

Variables and constants cannot be declared without a value. The value `undefined` may be used where no known value may be given, which is special in that it coerces to any type.

``````var x: u8 = undefined;
const y: i16 = undefined;
``````

The float types `f16`, `f32`, `f64`, `f128` are also supplied.

# Arrays #

Arrays use the syntax `[N]T`, where `N` (a natural number) is the number of elements, and `T` is the type of the elements, the so-called “child type” of the array. Examples: `u8`, `f32`, `u32`, `u40`.

A notable feature about Zig is that all values are constructed as literals, or are constructed using `T{}` syntax. Here’s an example of creating an array.

``````const a = u8{ 1, 2, 3 };
``````

The `N` in the case of array literals may be swapped out by `_` for when inferred length is desirable.

``````const a = [_]u8{ 1, 2, 3 };
``````

# If #

Zig’s basic if statement is simple in that it only accepts a `bool` value (of values `true` or `false`). There is no concept of truthy or falsy values.

Here I will introduce testing. Save the below code and compile + run it with `zig test file-name.zig`. We will be using the `expect` function from the standard library, which will cause the test to fail if its given the value `false`. When a test fails, the error and stack trace will be shown.

``````const expect = @import("std").testing.expect;

test "if statement" {
const a = true;
var x: u16 = 0;
if (a) {
x += 1;
} else {
x += 2;
}
expect(x == 1);
}
``````

If statements also work as expressions.

``````test "if statement expression" {
const a = true;
var x: u16 = 0;
x += if (a) 1 else 2;
expect(x == 1);
}
``````

# While #

Zig’s while loop has three parts - a condition, a block and a continue expression.

Without a continue expression.

``````test "while" {
var i: u8 = 2;
while (i < 100) {
i *= 2;
}
expect(i == 128);
}
``````

With a continue expression.

``````test "while with continue expression" {
var sum: u8 = 0;
var i: u8 = 1;
while (i <= 10) : (i += 1) {
sum += i;
}
expect(sum == 55);
}
``````

With a `continue`.

``````test "while with continue" {
var sum: u8 = 0;
var i: u8 = 0;
while (i <= 3) : (i += 1) {
if (i == 2) continue;
sum += i;
}
expect(sum == 4);
}
``````

With a `break`.

``````test "while with break" {
var sum: u8 = 0;
var i: u8 = 0;
while (i <= 3) : (i += 1) {
if (i == 2) break;
sum += i;
}
expect(sum == 1);
}
``````

# For #

For loops are used to iterate over arrays (and other types, to be discussed later). For loops follow this syntax. Like while, for loops can use `break` and `continue`.

``````test "for" {
//character literals are equivalent to integer literals
const string = [_]u8{ 'a', 'b', 'c' };

for (string) |character, index| {}

for (string) |character| {}

for (string) |_, index| {}

for (string) |_| {}
}
``````

# Functions #

All function arguments are immutable - if a copy is desired the user must explicitly make one. Unlike variables which are snake_case, functions are camelCase. Here’s an example of declaring and calling a simple function.

``````fn addFive(x: u32) u32 {
return x + 5;
}

test "function" {
expect(@TypeOf(y) == u32);
expect(y == 5);
}
``````

Recursion is allowed:

``````fn fibonacci(n: u16) u16 {
if (n == 0 or n == 1) return n;
return fibonacci(n - 1) + fibonacci(n - 2);
}

test "function recursion" {
const x = fibonacci(10);
expect(x == 55);
}
``````

When recursion happens, the compiler is no longer able to work out the maximum stack size. This may result in unsafe behaviour - a stack overflow. Details on how to achieve safe recursion will be covered in future.

Values can be ignored by using `_` in place of a variable or const declaration. This does not work at the global scope (i.e. it only works inside functions and blocks), and is useful for ignoring the values returned from functions if you do not need them.

``````_ = 10;
``````

# Defer #

Defer is used to execute a statement while exiting the current block.

``````test "defer" {
var x: i16 = 5;
{
defer x += 2;
expect(x == 5);
}
expect(x == 7);
}
``````

When there are multiple defers in a single block, they are executed in reverse order.

``````test "multi defer" {
var x: f32 = 5;
{
defer x += 2;
defer x /= 2;
}
expect(x == 4.5);
}
``````

# Errors #

An error set is like an enum (details on Zig’s enums later), where each error in the set is a value. There are no exceptions in Zig; errors are values. Let’s create an error set.

``````const FileOpenError = error{
AccessDenied,
OutOfMemory,
FileNotFound,
};
``````

Error sets coerce to their supersets.

``````const AllocationError = error{OutOfMemory};

test "coerce error from a subset to a superset" {
const err: FileOpenError = AllocationError.OutOfMemory;
expect(err == FileOpenError.OutOfMemory);
}
``````

An error set type and a normal type can be combined with the `!` operator to form an error union type. Values of these types may be an error value, or a value of the normal type.

Let’s create a value of an error union type. Here `catch` is used, which is followed by an expression which is evaluated when the value before it is an error. The catch here is used to provide a fallback value, but could instead be a `noreturn` - the type of `return`, `while (true)` and others.

``````test "error union" {
const maybe_error: AllocationError!u16 = 10;
const no_error = maybe_error catch 0;

expect(@TypeOf(no_error) == u16);
expect(no_error == 10);
}
``````

Functions often return error unions. Here’s one using a catch with payload capturing to take the value of the error. Side note: some languages use similar syntax for lambdas - this is not the case for Zig.

``````fn failingFunction() error{Oops}!void {
return error.Oops;
}

test "returning an error" {
failingFunction() catch |err| {
expect(err == error.Oops);
return;
};
}
``````

`try x` is a shortcut for `x catch |err| return err`, and is commonly used in places where handling an error isn’t appropriate. Zig’s `try` and `catch` are unrelated to try-catch in other languages.

``````fn failFn() error{Oops}!i32 {
try failingFunction();
return 12;
}

test "try" {
var v = failFn() catch |err| {
expect(err == error.Oops);
return;
};
expect(v == 12); // is never reached
}
``````

`errdefer` works like `defer`, but only executing when the function is returned from with an error inside of the `errdefer`’s block.

``````var problems: u32 = 98;

fn failFnCounter() error{Oops}!void {
errdefer problems += 1;
try failingFunction();
}

test "errdefer" {
failFnCounter() catch |err| {
expect(err == error.Oops);
expect(problems == 99);
return;
};
}
``````

Error unions returned from a function can have their error sets inferred by not having an explicit error set. This inferred error set contains all possible errors which the function may return.

``````fn createFile() !void {
return error.AccessDenied;
}

test "inferred error set" {
//type coercion successfully takes place
const x: error{AccessDenied}!void = createFile();
}
``````

Error sets can be merged.

``````const A = error{ NotDir, PathNotFound };
const B = error{ OutOfMemory, PathNotFound };
const C = A || B;
``````

`anyerror` is the global error set which due to being the superset of all error sets, can have an error from any set coerce to a value of it. Its usage should be generally avoided.

# Switch #

Zig’s `switch` works as both a statement and an expression. The types of all branches must coerce to the type which is being switched upon. All possible values must have an associated branch - values cannot be left out. Cases cannot fall through to other branches.

An example of a switch statement. The else is required to satisfy the exhaustiveness of this switch.

``````test "switch statement" {
var x: i8 = 10;
switch (x) {
-1...1 => {
x = -x;
},
10, 100 => {
//when dividing signed integers
x = @divExact(x, 10);
},
else => {},
}
expect(x == 1);
}
``````

Here is the former, but as a switch expression.

``````test "switch expression" {
var x: i8 = 10;
x = switch (x) {
-1...1 => -x,
10, 100 => @divExact(x, 10),
else => x,
};
expect(x == 1);
}
``````

# Runtime Safety #

Zig provides a level of safety, where problems may be found during execution. Safety can be left on, or turned off. Zig has many cases of so-called detectable illegal behaviour, meaning that illegal behaviour will be caught (causing a panic) with safety on, but will result in undefined behaviour with safety off. Users are strongly recommended to develop and test their software with safety on, despite its speed penalties.

For example, runtime safety protects you from out of bounds indices.

``````test "out of bounds" {
const a = u8{ 1, 2, 3 };
var index: u8 = 5;
const b = a[index];
}
``````
``````test "out of bounds"...index out of bounds
.\tests.zig:43:14: 0x7ff698cc1b82 in test "out of bounds" (test.obj)
const b = a[index];
^
``````

The user may choose to disable runtime safety for the current block by using the built-in function `@setRuntimeSafety`.

``````test "out of bounds, no safety" {
@setRuntimeSafety(false);
const a = u8{ 1, 2, 3 };
var index: u8 = 5;
const b = a[index];
}
``````

Safety is off for some build modes (to be discussed later).

# Unreachable #

`unreachable` is an assertion to the compiler that this statement will not be reached. It can be used to tell the compiler that a branch is impossible, which the optimiser can then take advantage of. Reaching an `unreachable` is detectable illegal behaviour.

As it is of the type `noreturn`, it is compatible with all other types. Here it coerces to u32.

``````test "unreachable" {
const x: i32 = 1;
const y: u32 = if (x == 2) 5 else unreachable;
}
``````
``````test "unreachable"...reached unreachable code
.\tests.zig:211:39: 0x7ff7e29b2049 in test "unreachable" (test.obj)
const y: u32 = if (x == 2) 5 else unreachable;
^
``````

Here is an unreachable being used in a switch.

``````fn asciiToUpper(x: u8) u8 {
return switch (x) {
'a'...'z' => x + 'A' - 'a',
'A'...'Z' => x,
else => unreachable,
};
}

test "unreachable switch" {
expect(asciiToUpper('a') == 'A');
expect(asciiToUpper('A') == 'A');
}
``````

# Pointers #

Normal pointers in Zig aren’t allowed to have 0 or null as a value. They follow the syntax `*T`, where `T` is the child type.

Referencing is done with `&variable`, and dereferencing is done with `variable.*`.

``````fn increment(num: *u8) void {
num.* += 1;
}

test "pointers" {
var x: u8 = 1;
increment(&x);
expect(x == 2);
}
``````

Trying to set a `*T` to the value 0 is detectable illegal behaviour.

``````test "naughty pointer" {
var x: u16 = 0;
var y: *u8 = @intToPtr(*u8, x);
}
``````
``````test "bad pointer"...cast causes pointer to be null
.\tests.zig:241:18: 0x7ff69ebb22bd in test "bad pointer" (test.obj)
var y: *u8 = @intToPtr(*u8, x);
^
``````

Zig also has const pointers, which cannot be used to modify the referenced data. Referencing a const variable will yield a const pointer.

``````test "const pointers" {
const x: u8 = 1;
var y = &x;
y.* += 1;
}
``````
``````error: cannot assign to constant
y.* += 1;
^
``````

A `*T` coerces to a `*const T`.

# Pointer sized integers #

`usize` and `isize` are given as unsigned and signed integers which are the same size as pointers.

``````test "usize" {
expect(@sizeOf(usize) == @sizeOf(*u8));
expect(@sizeOf(isize) == @sizeOf(*u8));
}
``````

# Multi Pointers #

Sometimes you may have a pointer to an unknown amount of elements. `[*]T` is the solution for this, which works like `*T` but also supports indexing syntax, pointer arithmetic, and slicing. Unlike `*T`, it cannot point to a type which does not have a known size. `*T` coerces to `[*]T`.

# Slices #

Slices can be thought of as a pair of `[*]T` (the pointer to the data) and a `usize` (the element count). Their syntax is given as `[]T`, with `T` being the child type. Slices are used heavily throughout Zig for when you need to operate on arbitrary amounts of data. Slices have the same attributes as pointers, meaning that there also exists const slices. For loops also operate over slices. String literals in Zig coerce to `[]const u8`.

Here, the syntax `x[n..m]` is used to create a slice from an array. This is called slicing, and creates a slice of the elements starting at `x[n]` and ending at `x[m - 1]`. This example uses a const slice as the values which the slice points to do not need to be modified.

``````fn total(values: []const u8) usize {
var count: usize = 0;
for (values) |v| count += v;
return count;
}
test "slices" {
const array = [_]u8{ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 };
const slice = array[0..3];
expect(total(slice) == 6);
}
``````

When these `n` and `m` values are both known at compile time, slicing will actually produce a pointer to an array. This is not an issue as a pointer to an array i.e. `*[N]T` will coerce to a `[]T`.

``````test "slices 2" {
const array = [_]u8{ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 };
const slice = array[0..3];
expect(@TypeOf(slice) == *const u8);
}
``````

The syntax `x[n..]` can also be used for when you want to slice to the end.

``````test "slices 3" {
var array = [_]u8{ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 };
var slice = array[0..];
}
``````

Types that may be sliced are: arrays, multi pointers and slices.

# Enums #

Let’s declare an enum.

``````const Direction = enum { north, south, east, west };
``````

Enums types may have specified (integer) tag types.

``````const Value = enum(u2) { zero, one, two };
``````

Enum’s ordinal values start at 0. They can be accessed with the built-in function `@enumToInt`.

``````test "enum ordinal value" {
expect(@enumToInt(Value.zero) == 0);
expect(@enumToInt(Value.one) == 1);
expect(@enumToInt(Value.two) == 2);
}
``````

Values can be overridden, with the next values continuing from there.

``````const Value2 = enum(u32) {
hundred = 100,
thousand = 1000,
million = 1000000,
next,
};

test "set enum ordinal value" {
expect(@enumToInt(Value2.hundred) == 100);
expect(@enumToInt(Value2.thousand) == 1000);
expect(@enumToInt(Value2.million) == 1000000);
expect(@enumToInt(Value2.next) == 1000001);
}
``````

Methods can be given to enums. These act as namespaced functions that can be called with dot syntax.

``````const Suit = enum {
clubs,
diamonds,
hearts,
pub fn isClubs(self: Suit) bool {
return self == Suit.clubs;
}
};

test "enum method" {
}
``````

Enums can also be given `var` and `const` declarations. These act as namespaced globals, and their values are unrelated and unattached to instances of the enum type.

``````const Mode = enum {
var count: u32 = 0;
on,
off,
};

test "hmm" {
Mode.count += 1;
expect(Mode.count == 1);
}
``````

# Structs #

Zig gives no guarantees about the in-memory order of fields in a struct, or its size. Like arrays, structs are also neatly constructed with `T{}` syntax. Here is an example of declaring and filling a struct.

``````const Vec3 = struct {
x: f32, y: f32, z: f32
};

test "struct usage" {
const my_vector = Vec3{
.x = 0,
.y = 100,
.z = 50,
};
}
``````

All fields must be given a value.

``````test "missing struct field" {
const my_vector = Vec3{
.x = 0,
.z = 50,
};
}
``````
``````error: missing field: 'y'
const my_vector = Vec3{
^
``````

Fields may be given defaults:

``````const Vec4 = struct {
x: f32, y: f32, z: f32 = 0, w: f32 = undefined
};

test "struct defaults" {
const my_vector = Vec4{
.x = 25,
.y = -50,
};
}
``````

Like enums, structs may also contain functions and declarations.

Structs have the unique property that when given a pointer to a struct, one level of dereferencing is done automatically when accessing fields. Notice how in this example, self.x and self.y are accessed in the swap function without needing to dereference the self pointer.

``````const Stuff = struct {
x: i32,
y: i32,
fn swap(self: *Stuff) void {
const tmp = self.x;
self.x = self.y;
self.y = tmp;
}
};

test "automatic dereference" {
var thing = Stuff{ .x = 10, .y = 20 };
thing.swap();
expect(thing.x == 20);
expect(thing.y == 10);
}
``````

# Unions #

Bare union types do not have a guaranteed memory layout. Because of this, bare unions cannot be used to reinterpret memory. Accessing a field in a union which is not active is detectable illegal behaviour.

``````const Payload = union {
int: i64,
float: f64,
bool: bool,
};

test "simple union" {
}
``````
``````test "simple union"...access of inactive union field
.\tests.zig:342:12: 0x7ff62c89244a in test "simple union" (test.obj)
^
``````

Tagged unions are unions which use an enum used to detect which field is active. Here we make use of a switch with payload capturing; captured values are immutable so pointers must be taken to mutate the values.

``````const Tag = enum { a, b, c };

const Tagged = union(Tag) { a: u8, b: f32, c: bool };

test "switch on tagged union" {
var value = Tagged{ .b = 1.5 };
switch (value) {
.a => |*byte| byte.* += 1,
.b => |*float| float.* *= 2,
.c => |*b| b.* = !b.*,
}
expect(value.b == 3);
}
``````

The tag type of a tagged union can also be inferred. This is equivalent to the Tagged type above.

``````const Tagged = union(enum) { a: u8, b: f32, c: bool };
``````

`void` member types can have their type omitted from the syntax. Here, none is of type `void`.

``````const Tagged2 = union(enum) { a: u8, b: f32, c: bool, none };
``````

# Integer Rules #

Zig supports hex, octal and binary integer literals.

``````const decimal_int: i32 = 98222;
const hex_int: u8 = 0xff;
const another_hex_int: u8 = 0xFF;
const octal_int: u16 = 0o755;
const binary_int: u8 = 0b11110000;
``````

Underscores may also be placed between digits as a visual separator.

``````const one_billion: u64 = 1_000_000_000;
const permissions: u64 = 0o7_5_5;
``````

“Integer Widening” is allowed, which means that integers of a type may coerce to an integer of another type, providing that the new type can fit all of the values that the old type can.

``````test "integer widening" {
const a: u8 = 250;
const b: u16 = a;
const c: u32 = b;
expect(c == a);
}
``````

If you have a value stored in an integer that cannot coerce to the type that you want, `@intCast` may be used to explicitly convert from one type to the other. If the value given is out of the range of the destination type, this is detectable illegal behaviour.

``````test "@intCast" {
const x: u64 = 200;
const y = @intCast(u8, x);
expect(@TypeOf(y) == u8);
}
``````

Integers by default are not allowed to overflow. Overflows are detectable illegal behaviour. Sometimes being able to overflow integers in a well defined manner is wanted behaviour. For this use case, Zig provides overflow operators.

Normal OperatorWrapping Operator
++%
--%
**%
+=+%=
-=-%=
*=*%=
``````test "well defined overflow" {
var a: u8 = 255;
a +%= 1;
expect(a == 0);
}
``````

# Floats #

Zig’s floats are strictly IEEE compliant unless `@setFloatMode(.Optimized)` is used, which is equivalent to GCC’s `-ffast-math`. Floats coerce to larger float types.

``````test "float widening" {
const a: f16 = 0;
const b: f32 = a;
const c: f128 = b;
expect(c == @as(f128, a));
}
``````

Floats support multiple kinds of literal.

``````const floating_point: f64 = 123.0E+77;
const another_float: f64 = 123.0;
const yet_another: f64 = 123.0e+77;

const hex_floating_point: f64 = 0x103.70p-5;
const another_hex_float: f64 = 0x103.70;
const yet_another_hex_float: f64 = 0x103.70P-5;
``````

Underscores may also be placed between digits.

``````const lightspeed: f64 = 299_792_458.000_000;
const nanosecond: f64 = 0.000_000_001;
const more_hex: f64 = 0x1234_5678.9ABC_CDEFp-10;
``````

Integers and floats may be converted using the built-in functions `@intToFloat` and `@floatToInt`. `@intToFloat` is always safe, whereas `@floatToInt` is detectable illegal behaviour if the float value cannot fit in the integer destination type.

``````test "int-float conversion" {
const a: i32 = 0;
const b = @intToFloat(f32, a);
const c = @floatToInt(i32, b);
expect(c == a);
}
``````

# Labelled Blocks #

Blocks in Zig are expressions and can be given labels, which are used to yield values. Here, we are using a label called blk. Blocks yield values, meaning that they can be used in place of a value. The value of an empty block `{}` is a value of the type `void`.

``````test "labelled blocks" {
const count = blk: {
var sum: u32 = 0;
var i: u32 = 0;
while (i < 10) : (i += 1) sum += i;
break :blk sum;
};
expect(count == 45);
expect(@TypeOf(count) == u32);
}
``````

This can be seen as being equivalent to C’s `i++`.

``````blk: {
const tmp = i;
i += 1;
break :blk tmp;
}
``````

# Labelled Loops #

Loops can be given labels, allowing you to `break` and `continue` to outer loops.

``````test "nested continue" {
var count: usize = 0;
outer: for ([_]i32{ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 }) |_| {
for ([_]i32{ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 }) |_| {
count += 1;
continue :outer;
}
}
expect(count == 8);
}
``````

# Loops as expressions #

Like `return`, `break` accepts a value. This can be used to yield a value from a loop. Loops in Zig also have an `else` branch on loops, which is evaluated when the loop is not exited from with a `break`.

``````fn rangeHasNumber(begin: usize, end: usize, number: usize) bool {
var i = begin;
return while (i < end) : (i += 1) {
if (i == number) {
break true;
}
} else false;
}

test "while loop expression" {
expect(rangeHasNumber(0, 10, 3));
}
``````

# Optionals #

Optionals use the syntax `?T` and are used to store the data `null`, or a value of type `T`.

``````test "optional" {
var found_index: ?usize = null;
const data = [_]i32{ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12 };
for (data) |v, i| {
if (v == 10) found_index = i;
}
expect(found_index == null);
}
``````

Optionals support the `orelse` expression, which acts when the optional is `null`. This unwraps the optional to its child type.

``````test "orelse" {
var a: ?f32 = null;
var b = a orelse 0;
expect(b == 0);
expect(@TypeOf(b) == f32);
}
``````

`.?` is a shorthand for `orelse unreachable`. This is used for when you know it is impossible for an optional value to be null, and using this to unwrap a `null` value is detectable illegal behaviour.

``````test "orelse unreachable" {
const a: ?f32 = 5;
const b = a orelse unreachable;
const c = a.?;
expect(b == c);
expect(@TypeOf(c) == f32);
}
``````

Payload capturing works in many places for optionals.

Here we use an `if` optional payload capture; a and b are equivalent here.

``````test "if optional payload capture" {
const a: ?i32 = 5;
if (a != null) {
const value = a.?;
}

const b: ?i32 = 5;
if (b) |value| {}
}
``````

And with `while`:

``````var numbers_left: u32 = 4;
fn eventuallyNullSequence() ?u32 {
if (numbers_left == 0) return null;
numbers_left -= 1;
return numbers_left;
}

test "while null capture" {
var sum: u32 = 0;
while (eventuallyNullSequence()) |value| {
sum += value;
}
expect(sum == 6); // 3 + 2 + 1
}
``````

Optional pointer and optional slice types do not take up any extra memory, compared to non-optional ones. This is because internally they use the 0 value of the pointer for `null`.

This is how null pointers in Zig work - they must be unwrapped to a non-optional before dereferencing, which stops null pointer dereferences from happening accidentally.

# Comptime #

Blocks of code may be forcibly executed at compile time using the `comptime` keyword. In this example, the variables x and y are equivalent.

``````test "comptime blocks" {
var x = comptime fibonacci(10);

var y = comptime blk: {
break :blk fibonacci(10);
};
}
``````

Integer literals are of the type `comptime_int`. These are special in that they have no size (they cannot be used at runtime!), and they have arbitrary precision. `comptime_int` values coerce to any integer type that can hold them. They also coerce to floats. Character literals are of this type.

``````test "comptime_int" {
const a = 12;
const b = a + 10;

const c: u4 = a;
const d: f32 = b;
}
``````

`comptime_float` is also available, which internally is an `f128`. These cannot be coerced to integers, even if they hold an integer value.

Types in Zig are values of the type `type`. These are available at compile time. We have previously encountered them by checking `@TypeOf` and comparing with other types, but we can do more.

``````test "branching on types" {
const a = 5;
const b: if (a < 10) f32 else i32 = 5;
}
``````

Function parameters in Zig can be tagged as being `comptime`. This means that the value passed to that function parameter must be known at compile time. Let’s make a function that returns a type. Notice how this function is PascalCase, as it returns a type.

``````fn Matrix(
comptime T: type,
comptime width: comptime_int,
comptime height: comptime_int,
) type {
return [height][width]T;
}

test "returning a type" {
expect(Matrix(f32, 4, 4) == f32);
}
``````

We can reflect upon types using the built-in `@typeInfo`, which takes in a `type` and returns a tagged union. This tagged union type can be found in `std.builtin.TypeInfo` (info on how to make use of imports and std later).

``````fn addSmallInts(comptime T: type, a: T, b: T) T {
return switch (@typeInfo(T)) {
.ComptimeInt => a + b,
.Int => |info| if (info.bits <= 16)
a + b
else
@compileError("ints too large"),
else => @compileError("only ints accepted"),
};
}

test "typeinfo switch" {
const x = addSmallInts(u16, 20, 30);
expect(@TypeOf(x) == u16);
expect(x == 50);
}
``````

We can use the `@Type` function to create a type from a `@typeInfo`. `@Type` is implemented for most types but is notably unimplemented for enums, unions, functions, and structs.

Here anonymous struct syntax is used with `.{}`, because the `T` in `T{}` can be inferred. Anonymous structs will be covered in detail later. In this example we will get a compile error if the `Int` tag isn’t set.

``````fn getBiggerInt(comptime T: type) type {
return @Type(.{
.Int = .{
.bits = @typeInfo(T).Int.bits + 1,
.signedness = @typeInfo(T).Int.signedness,
},
});
}

test "@Type" {
expect(getBiggerInt(u8) == u9);
expect(getBiggerInt(i31) == i32);
}
``````

Returning a struct type is how you make generic data structures in Zig. The usage of `@This` is required here, which gets the type of the innermost struct, union, or enum. Here `std.mem.eql` is also used which compares two slices.

``````fn Vec(
comptime count: comptime_int,
comptime T: type,
) type {
return struct {
data: [count]T,
const Self = @This();

fn abs(self: Self) Self {
var tmp = Self{ .data = undefined };
for (self.data) |elem, i| {
tmp.data[i] = if (elem < 0)
-elem
else
elem;
}
return tmp;
}

fn init(data: [count]T) Self {
return Self{ .data = data };
}
};
}

const eql = @import("std").mem.eql;

test "generic vector" {
const x = Vec(3, f32).init([_]f32{ 10, -10, 5 });
const y = x.abs();
expect(eql(f32, &y.data, &[_]f32{ 10, 10, 5 }));
}
``````

The types of function parameters can also be inferred by using `anytype` in place of a type. `@TypeOf` can then be used on the parameter.

``````fn plusOne(x: anytype) @TypeOf(x) {
return x + 1;
}

test "inferred function parameter" {
expect(plusOne(@as(u32, 1)) == 2);
}
``````

Comptime also introduces the operators `++` and `**` for concatenating and repeating arrays and slices. These operators do not work at runtime.

``````test "++" {
const x: u8 = undefined;
const y = x[0..];

const a: u8 = undefined;
const b = a[0..];

const new = y ++ b;
expect(new.len == 10);
}

test "**" {
const pattern = [_]u8{ 0xCC, 0xAA };
const memory = pattern ** 3;
expect(eql(
u8,
&memory,
&[_]u8{ 0xCC, 0xAA, 0xCC, 0xAA, 0xCC, 0xAA }
));
}
``````

# Inline Loops #

`inline` loops are unrolled, and allow some things to happen which only work at compile time. Here we use a `for`, but a `while` works similarly.

``````test "inline for" {
const types = [_]type{ i32, f32, u8, bool };
var sum: usize = 0;
inline for (types) |T| sum += @sizeOf(T);
expect(sum == 10);
}
``````

Using these for performance reasons is inadvisable unless you’ve tested that explicitly unrolling is faster; the compiler tends to make better decisions here than you.

# Anonymous Structs #

The struct type may be omitted from a struct literal. These literals may coerce to other struct types.

``````test "anonymous struct literal" {
const Point = struct { x: i32, y: i32 };

var pt: Point = .{
.x = 13,
.y = 67,
};
expect(pt.x == 13);
expect(pt.y == 67);
}
``````

Anonymous structs may be completely anonymous i.e. without being coerced to another struct type.

``````test "fully anonymous struct" {
dump(.{
.int = @as(u32, 1234),
.float = @as(f64, 12.34),
.b = true,
.s = "hi",
});
}

fn dump(args: anytype) void {
expect(args.int == 1234);
expect(args.float == 12.34);
expect(args.b);
expect(args.s == 'h');
expect(args.s == 'i');
}
``````

Anonymous structs without field names may be created, and are referred to as tuples. These have many of the properties that arrays do; tuples can be iterated over, indexed, can be used with the `++` and `**` operators, and have a len field. Internally, these have numbered field names starting at `"0"`, which may be accessed with the special syntax `@"0"` which acts as an escape for the syntax - things inside `@""` are always recognised as identifiers.

``````test "tuple" {
const values = .{
@as(u32, 1234),
@as(f64, 12.34),
true,
"hi",
} ++ .{false} ** 2;
expect(values == 1234);
expect(values == false);
inline for (values) |v, i| {
if (i != 2) continue;
expect(v);
}
expect(values.len == 6);
expect(values.@"3" == 'h');
}
``````

# Sentinel Termination #

Arrays, slices and multi pointers may be terminated by a value of their child type. This is known as sentinel termination. These follow the syntax `[N:t]T`, `[:t]T`, and `[*:t]T`, where `t` is a value of the child type `T`.

An example of a sentinel terminated array. The built-in `@bitCast` is used to perform an unsafe bitwise type conversion. This shows us that the last element of the array is followed by a 0 byte.

``````test "sentinel termination" {
const terminated = [3:0]u8{ 3, 2, 1 };
expect(terminated.len == 3);
expect(@bitCast(u8, terminated) == 0);
}
``````

The types of string literals is `*const [N:0]u8`, where N is the length of the string. This allows string literals to coerce to sentinel terminated slices, and sentinel terminated multi pointers. Note: string literals are UTF-8 encoded.

``````test "string literal" {
expect(@TypeOf("hello") == *const [5:0]u8);
}
``````

`[*:0]u8` and `[*:0]const u8` perfectly model C’s strings.

``````test "C string" {
const c_string: [*:0]const u8 = "hello";
var array: u8 = undefined;

var i: usize = 0;
while (c_string[i] != 0) : (i += 1) {
array[i] = c_string[i];
}
}
``````

Sentinel terminated types coerce to their non-sentinel-terminated counterparts.

``````test "coercion" {
var a: [*:0]u8 = undefined;
const b: [*]u8 = a;

var c: [5:0]u8 = undefined;
const d: u8 = c;

var e: [:10]f32 = undefined;
const f = e;
}
``````

Sentinel terminated slicing is provided which can be used to create a sentinel terminated slice with the syntax `x[n..m:t]`, where `t` is the terminator value. Doing this is an assertion from the programmer that the memory is terminated where it should be - getting this wrong is detectable illegal behaviour.

``````test "sentinel terminated slicing" {
var x = [_:0]u8{255} ** 3;
const y = x[0..3 :0];
}
``````

# Vectors #

Zig provides vector types for SIMD. These are not to be conflated with vectors in a mathematical sense, or vectors like C++’s std::vector. Vectors may be created using the `@Type` built-in we used earlier, and `std.meta.Vector` provides a shorthand for this.

Vectors can only have child types of booleans, integers, floats and pointers.

Operations between vectors with the same child type and length can take place. These operations are performed on each of the values in the vector.`std.meta.eql` is used here to check for equality between two vectors (also useful for other types like structs).

``````const meta = @import("std").meta;
const Vector = meta.Vector;

const x: Vector(4, f32) = .{ 1, -10, 20, -1 };
const y: Vector(4, f32) = .{ 2, 10, 0, 1 };
const z = x + y;
expect(meta.eql(z, Vector(4, f32){ 3, 0, 20, 0 }));
}
``````

Vectors are indexable.

``````test "vector indexing" {
const x: Vector(4, u8) = .{ 255, 0, 255, 0 };
expect(x == 255);
}
``````

The built-in function `@splat` may be used to construct a vector where all of the values are the same. Here I am using it to multiply a vector by a scalar.

``````test "vector * scalar" {
const x: Vector(3, f32) = .{ 12.5, 37.5, 2.5 };
const y = x * @splat(3, @as(f32, 2));
expect(meta.eql(y, Vector(3, f32){ 25, 75, 5 }));
}
``````

Vectors do not have a `len` field like arrays, but may still be looped over. Here, `std.mem.len` is used as a shortcut for `@typeInfo(@TypeOf(x)).Vector.len`.

``````const len = @import("std").mem.len;

test "vector looping" {
const x = Vector(4, u8){ 255, 0, 255, 0 };
var sum = blk: {
var tmp: u10 = 0;
var i: u8 = 0;
while (i < len(x)) : (i += 1) tmp += x[i];
break :blk tmp;
};
expect(sum == 510);
}
``````

Vectors coerce to their respective arrays.

``````const arr: f32 = @Vector(4, f32){ 1, 2, 3, 4 };
``````

It is worth noting that using explicit vectors may result in slower software if you do not make the right decisions - the compiler’s auto-vectorisation is fairly smart as-is.

# Imports #

The built-in function `@import` takes in a file, and gives you a struct type based on that file. All declarations labelled as `pub` (for public) will end up in this struct type, ready for use.

`@import("std")` is a special case in the compiler, and gives you access to the standard library. Other `@import`s will take in a file path, or a package name (more on packages in a later chapter).

We will explore more of the standard library in later chapters.

# End Of Chapter 1 #

In the next chapter we will cover standard patterns, including many useful areas of the standard library.

Feedback and PRs are welcome.